New generation fel type biological domestic wastewater treatment system
Transportation and storage
Before placing the wwtp on the vehicle, make sure that there are no sharp bulges which could damage the plant. Plant must be transported in vertical position! To avoid various damages during transportation plant should be securely fastened. For fastening use GRP, nylon or other non-metallic belts.
During storage the plant must be protected from damage and third parties, and store the plant on the flat and stable surface.
Preparations for construction works
Before starting the construction works, you will need following material and tools / machinery:
- good quality adhesive-sealant (eg., Wurth Bond+Seal),
- joint-pins M4x30 A2 or stainless steel screws DIN7337 M4x35 A2,
- backfill: light soil (3-20 mm size sand or gravel),
- PVC sewer pipes of required diameter,
- PVC pipes or hose for air supply of required diameter,
- electrical cable 3 x 1,5 kW, 220 V (in case when the air blower is installed outside next to the plant),
- cable protection hose (in case when the air blower is installed outside next to the plant),
- shovels, mini excavator bucket,
- hot dip galvanized anchoring bolts M12x110 mm (if necessary),
- concrete mixture or concrete reinforced plate of required diameter (if necessary),
- personal protective equipment (vest, gloves, helmet etc.).
Also water supply is necessary in construction site.
The location where the plant will be installed should be selected as described in the technical project. If technical project is not available, the location shall be selected in accordance with Construction Technical Regulations. The plant shall be installed in location where the sludge suction vehicle can easily service it. Also, do not install the plant in a place where the rain- and snow water accumulates.
Groundworks and installation
Groundworks should be carried out in accordance with Construction Technical Regulations and technical project.
The shape of the excavation shall look like funnel. Diameter of the excavation shall be at least 1.5 m wider at the top and 0.5 meter wider at the bottom than the diameter of plant. The maximum backfill from the ground surface to the top of the plant is 1.2 m. Diameter of the plants shown in Table 01 (page 11).
Fig. 1. Excavation size
Excavation shall be prepared in two stages:
- The excavation is dig up by the excavator up to 20–30 cm of the altitude of the bed of excavation.
- The last 20–30 cm of ground shall be excavated manually. Keep the excavation dry by using pump if necessary.
Fig. 2. Installation of the plant
- Low the plant into excavation. Use lifting belts and excavator bucket. Fasten the belts to the handles.
- Centre the plant. Plant must be installed strictly in horizontal position. The spirit level can be used to ensure the level.
- Backfill, i. e. light soil shall be compacted with water and / or using the soil compactor. It is prohibited to use different ground for backfill (eg., clay, construction waste, etc.)!!! Join the plant with manhole. It is necessary to ensure water tightness. Use good quality adhesive-sealant and joint-pins or stainless steel screws. Distance between screws is about 15 cm. Join the manhole with the inspection lid too.
- Fill the tank with water and the excavation with the backfill by equal 20–30 cm layers as follows: 1) inner chamber, 2) external chamber, 3) excavation. Repeat it up to the outlet pipe.
- Connect PVC sewer pipes to the inlet and outlet sleeves. The slope of the pipe should be 1-2 cm/m. Pipeline must be laid on the natural soil. Materials such as gravel, sand can be used for the base of pipeline.
- Finish the backfilling up to designed altitude. For the upper layer of soil (20–30 cm) use compost. The upper layer of ground around the plant should be 5–10 cm higher than local area surface. Seed with the grass.
Installation at high groundwater level
When the plant has to be installed in wet ground, where groundwater level is less than 2.5 meters from the ground surface, it should be anchored to reinforced concrete base. For concrete base regular reinforced mesh or plate can be used. Use anchoring straps and hot dip galvanized anchoring bolts. Distance between the bolt and the wall of the concrete base shall be not less than 105 mm. In case if customer ignores this note, the manufacturer is not responsible for long-term physical or mechanical forces which can deform the plant.
Wastewater treatment plant can be started-up by owner. There are two options to start-up it:
ü Natural grow up. With this option microorganisms (i.e. activated sludge) have to grow up in wastewater treatment plant naturally. During installation works the plant had to be filled with water, the control unit box connected to the plant, and electric power connected to the box. Switch on the control unit. You should observe turbulence (bubbles) in bioreactor. The aeration process is starts. Within first week of operation supply wastewater into plant only in urgent cases (i.e. WC, shower). Within first 3-4 weeks of the operation limit the quantity of household chemicals; use washing machine and/or dishwasher only if it necessary. I.e. during first month of operation the wastewater treatment plant shall receive more organic matter (WC, shower, sink) and less chemicals and large amount of water. From 4th-5th week of operation the plant can be fully loaded without limiting ourselves in household.
This option is the best when the average day temperature is no less than +10 ºC and at night time no less than 0 ºC, because cold season is not a good time for reproduction and decompose of microorganisms.
ü Bringing activated sludge. Switch the control unit and aerate the plant for one day. Next day pour the activated sludge from a properly operating biological wastewater treatment plant: the amount of sludge – 5–10 % of the volume of the plant (Table 01), concentration at least 4-5 g/l. Aerate the plant all next day. After this procedure you can supply wastewater into plant without limiting ourselves in household.
This option can be performed at any time of the year.
The waste (excess sludge) formed during the treatment of domestic wastewater must be disposed in a proper and environmentally safe way. The amount of the sludge and de-sludging frequency depends on hydraulic and organic loading of the plant. Each plant has its own characteristics. During accredited 38-week test period no sludge removal was necessary. Plants serving domestic residential properties will typically require de-sludging once a year. How to determine when is the time to remove the excess sludge? You can perform a simple test: use clear container (eg. a jar) and take a sample of sludge and water mixture from the bioreactor. Allow sludge to settle for about 30 min. The sludge may occupy up to 70–80 % of the volume. When the volume of the sludge reaches 80 percent or more, it is time for de-sludging. The sludge shall be removed from both chambers (clarifier and bioreactor).
De-sludging must be performed by authorized service companies. Switch off the control unit box for 1–2 hours, sludge will settle. Open an inspection lid. De-sludging procedure will be carried out by the pump of the sludge suction vehicle.
Air blower maintenance
The efficiency of wastewater treatment depends on proper operation of the air blower, so it is very important to ensure a proper operation of it. Occasionally check whether the air blower is operating normally: is it making abnormal noise or vibrations, is the temperature abnormally high etc. It is necessary to clean the filter element once every 3 months:
- Undo the truss head screw.
- Remove the filter cover.
- Slap down dust by hand. If it is heavily contaminated, wash it by using neutral detergent. Then rinse and let it dry in the air.
- Reassemble the filter element back in place.
- Secure the filter cover with truss head screw.
Prior to maintenance servicing, pull off the power cord. Do not use benzene or solvents to clean the filter element as it can damage it. More information about maintenance, possible failures etc. is described in the User Manual of air blower. Please read it carefully!
To maintain efficient daily operation of the plant, the following should be noted. Operating the plant is FORBIDDET TO:
- Pour bacteria and other bio preparations (eg.: Septic Gobbler, Toilet Gobbler, BioActive, Bio 7 Fosses ). Such bacteria are intended for sewage or septic tanks, other anaerobic systems to eliminate the odour and decompose organic matter.
- Discharge from water softeners (i.e. regeneration process wastewater) into the plant as the salts will significantly reduce the efficiency of wastewater treatment. In this case it is necessary to provide a separate drainage pipeline for process wastewater, bypassing the plant.
- Discharge from condensing boilers.
- Connect swimming pools, hot tubs etc. A large amount of water can wash the activated sludge from the system, and chlorine may affect the quality of the activated sludge.
- Connect surface run-off, rainwater. Surface/rainwater should always be discharged to a rain drainage.
- Put down to the toilet hygienic products, such as paper towels, sanitary pads, tampons, cotton pads, cotton swabs, diapers, wet wipes, rubber products (gloves, condoms) and other non-biodegradable waste.
- Put down or pour to the toilet, sink or the plant itself the waste, which can block the pipes and/or all system, eg., cat litter, cigarette butts, garden chemicals and paints, automotive oil filters and engine oil, medical drugs, construction waste, sand, gravel etc.
- Pour large quantity of oil and fat from fryers or pans. The allowable quantity of grease is the quantity remaining on the dishes and during the dish washing.
- Even when the plant is not in use, it cannot be left empty! Ground pressure may affect the empty plant from outside, so it always must be filled with water.
Operating the plant is RECOMMENDED TO:
- Limit chemical disinfectants which contain chlorine or active oxygen. Such disinfectants are marked with symbols Health hazard and Toxic.
- Avoid a laundry day, and spread laundry through the week.
- Do not exceed the doses of household chemicals and use it as subscribed on the package.
- Use the same household cleaning chemicals, as the activated sludge will work more efficiently with familiar products.
Fig. 5. 1 - tank, 2 - manhole, 3 - lid, 4 - control box
The plant is intended for domestic wastewater, accessing from the kitchen, bathroom, WC, and other similar purpose rooms. Thus it is forbidden to pour oil and other petroleum products, grease (the allowable grease is the amount of grease, accessing the pipes during the dish washing), chemical substances, which access the sewage is not foreseen according to their scope (agro-chemistry, bleach and other chemical substances, especially containing chlorine). The surface waste water from the roof, yard, drain water and water from the basin also cannot access this equipment, as the aforementioned water would damage the hydraulic conditions of the plant.
The system treats domestic wastewater biologically and chemically.
The plant comprises of centred tanks: aerobic/anoxic chamber (bioreactor) (Fig. 5, pos. 1) and secondary settler (clarifier) in it; also control box (Fig. 5, pos. 4).
Untreated wastewater is entering the system. Process of removal of organic pollutions and process of oxidizing nitrogen to nitrite develop in bioreactor when supplying compressed air and activated sludge. The anoxic processes are forming, when aeration is inactive (switched off): microorganisms are using the oxygen of nitrates, which allowing releasing gaseous nitrogen, i.e. removes nitrogen from wastewater.